This self-directed learning module highlights new advances in the understanding of co-morbid conditions and medical complications of stroke. It is part of the chapter on stroke rehabilitation in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This article covers co-morbid conditions of stroke patients, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea. It reviews recent information on complications of stroke, including deep venous thrombosis, dysphagia and aspiration, hospital-acquired infections, depression, falls, spasticity, shoulder pain, and seizures. Treatment advances in diabetes, depression, and spasticity are highlighted. Recent information is presented regarding exercise guidelines for the stroke patient with cardiovascular disease, the relationship between stroke and sleep apnea, prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis, the changing spectrum of hospital- acquired infections, malnutrition in stroke patients, the problem of falls during rehabilitation, the evaluation and management of poststroke shoulder pain, and the risk of seizures after stroke.
Black-Schaffer, R. M., Kirsteins, A. E., & Harvey, R. L. (1999). Stroke rehabilitation. 2. Co-morbidities and complications. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(5 SUPPL.). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90096-5