The aim of this review is to analyze the results of experimental research of mechanisms of regulation of mitochondrial respiration in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells in vivo obtained by using the permeabilized cell technique. Such an analysis in the framework of Molecular Systems Bioenergetics shows that the mechanisms of regulation of energy fluxes depend on the structural organization of the cells and interaction of mitochondria with cytoskeletal elements. Two types of cells of cardiac phenotype with very different structures were analyzed: adult cardiomyocytes and continuously dividing cancerous HL-1 cells. In cardiomyocytes mitochondria are arranged very regularly, and show rapid configuration changes of inner membrane but no fusion or fission, diffusion of ADP and ATP is restricted mostly at the level of mitochondrial outer membrane due to an interaction of heterodimeric tubulin with voltage dependent anion channel, VDAC. VDAC with associated tubulin forms a supercomplex, Mitochondrial Interactosome, with mitochondrial creatine kinase, MtCK, which is structurally and functionally coupled to ATP synthasome. Due to selectively limited permeability of VDAC for adenine nucleotides, mitochondrial respiration rate depends almost linearly upon the changes of cytoplasmic ADP concentration in their physiological range. Functional coupling of MtCK with ATP synthasome amplifies this signal by recycling adenine nucleotides in mitochondria coupled to effective phosphocreatine synthesis. In cancerous HL-1 cells this complex is significantly modified: tubulin is replaced by hexokinase and MtCK is lacking, resulting in direct utilization of mitochondrial ATP for glycolytic lactate production and in this way contributing in the mechanism of the Warburg effect. Systemic analysis of changes in the integrated system of energy metabolism is also helpful for better understanding of pathogenesis of many other diseases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Saks, V., Guzun, R., Timohhina, N., Tepp, K., Varikmaa, M., Monge, C., … Seppet, E. (2010, June). Structure-function relationships in feedback regulation of energy fluxes in vivo in health and disease: Mitochondrial Interactosome. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.01.011