Titanate nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal method at 105 °C for 24 h (setting temperature) using natural leucoxene mineral as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared nanotubes showed internal diameter of 4-6 nm, external diameter of 8-10 nm, and the length of 0.2-1 μm. This synthesis method provided a simple route to fabricate nanostructured material from low cost natural mineral using Thai autoclave unit. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Aphairaj, D., Wirunmongkol, T., Pavasupree, S., & Limsuwan, P. (2012). Synthesis of titanate nanotubes from Thai leucoxene mineral. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 32, pp. 1068–1072). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.02.056