The trauma involved with inserting implants into bone leads to an activation of the inflammatory response and an activation of osteoclasts. In addition, apoptosis of osteocytes in the surrounding area has been implicated in further activation of osteoclasts. If the balance between resorption and bone formation shortly after implantation favours resorption, an impairment of early fixation might ensue.Because bisphosphonates inhibit resorption, this study analyses whether they can improve early fixation. Stainless steel screws (M 1.7) were inserted into the tibiae of 76 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Daily subcutaneous injections of ibandronate (3 μg) or saline were given to 20 rats. The remaining rats received ibandronate or saline directly applied into the drill hole before the screw was inserted. Tibiae were harvested at 14 days. Mechanical tests were performed on 50 tibiae. Systemically treated tibiae were tested for pull-out strength alone. Locally treated tibiae were tested for either pull-out or torque resistance. The remaining 18 tibiae were prepared for histology.Systemic ibandronate increased the pull-out force at failure by 30% (p=0.04). Local treatment increased the force at failure by 15% (p=0.02) and stiffness by 28% (p=0.01). In the removal torque measurements, local ibandronate increased the torque-moment at failure by 60% (p=0.04), and the maximum friction moment by 51% (p=0.04). Energy for turning the screw 1/4 revolution was increased by 68% (p=0.02).These results demonstrate that early remodeling events plays an important role in screw fixation, and that systemic or local bisphosphonate treatment could be an effective pharmacological path to improve early implant fixation. © 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skoglund, B., Holmertz, J., & Aspenberg, P. (2004). Systemic and local ibandronate enhance screw fixation. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 22(5), 1108–1113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orthres.2003.12.015