The equilibrium adhesion of a cell or vesicle to a substrate is analyzed in a theoretical model in which two types of mobile molecules in the cell membrane are of interest: receptors that can form bonds with fixed ligands in the substrate and repellers that repel the substrate. If the repulsion between the repeller molecule and substrate is greater than kT, there is substantial redistribution of the repellers from the contact area. Coexisting equilibrium states are observed having comparable free energies (a) with unstretched bonds and repeller redistribution and (b) with stretched bonds and partial redistribution. © 1986, The Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.
Torney, D. C., Dembo, M., & Bell, G. I. (1986). Thermodynamics of cell adhesion. II. Freely mobile repellers. Biophysical Journal, 49(2), 501–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(86)83660-8