Low impedance at the interface between tissue and conducting electrodes is of utmost importance for the electrical recording or stimulation of heart and brain tissue. A common way to improve the cell-metal interface and thus the signal-to-noise ratio of recordings, as well as the charge transfer for stimulation applications, is to increase the electrochemically active electrode surface area. In this paper, we propose a method to decrease the impedance of microelectrodes by the introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), offering an extremely rough surface. In a multistage process, an array of multiple microelectrodes covered with high quality, tightly bound CNTs was realized. It is shown by impedance spectroscopy and cardiac myocyte recordings that the transducer properties of the carbon nanotube electrodes are superior to conventional gold and titanium nitride electrodes. These findings will be favorable for any kind of implantable heart electrodes and electrophysiology in cardiac myocyte cultures. © The Author(s) 2012.
Nick, C., Joshi, R., Schneider, J. J., & Thielemann, C. (2012). Three-dimensional carbon nanotube electrodes for extracellular recording of cardiac myocytes. Biointerphases, 7(1–4), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13758-012-0058-2