Three-dimensional shape and two-dimensional surface reflectance contributions to face recognition: An application of three-dimensional morphing

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Abstract

We measured the three-dimensional shape and two-dimensional surface reflectance contributions to human recognition of faces across viewpoint. We first divided laser scans of human heads into their two- and three-dimensional components. Next, we created shape-normalized faces by morphing the two-dimensional surface reflectance maps of each face onto the average three-dimensional head shape and reflectance-normalized faces by morphing the average two-dimensional surface reflectance map onto each three-dimensional head shape. Observers learned frontal images of the original, shape-normalized. or reflectance-normalized faces, and were asked to recognize the faces from viewpoint changes of 0, 30 and 60°. Both the three-dimensional shape and two-dimensional surface reflectance information contributed substantially to human recognition performance, thus constraining theories of face representation to include both types of information. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.

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O’Toole, A. J., Vetter, T., & Blanz, V. (1999). Three-dimensional shape and two-dimensional surface reflectance contributions to face recognition: An application of three-dimensional morphing. Vision Research, 39(18), 3145–3155. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(99)00034-6

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