Macrophages play a dual role in regulating tumor progression. They can either reduce tumor growth by secreting antitumorigenic factors or promote tumor progression by secreting a variety of soluble factors. The purpose of this study was to define the monocyte/macrophage population prevalent in skeletal tumors, explore a mechanism employed in supporting prostate cancer (PCa) skeletal metastasis, and examine a novel therapeutic target. Phagocytic CD68+ cells were found to correlate with Gleason score in human PCa samples, and M2-like macrophages (F4/80+CD206+) were identified in PCa bone resident tumors in mice. Induced M2-like macrophages in vitro were more proficient at phagocytosis (efferocytosis) of apoptotic tumor cells than M1-like macrophages. Moreover, soluble factors released from efferocytic versus nonefferocytic macrophages increased PC-3 prostate cancer cell numbers in vitro. Trabectedin exposure reduced M2-like (F4/80+CD206+) macrophages in vivo. Trabectedin administration after PC-3 cell intracardiac inoculation reduced skeletal metastatic tumor growth. Preventative pretreatment with trabectedin 7 days prior to PC-3 cell injection resulted in reduced M2-like macrophages in the marrow and reduced skeletal tumor size. Together, these findings suggest that M2-like monocytes and macrophages promote PCa skeletal metastasis and that trabectedin represents a candidate therapeutic target.
Jones, J. D., Sinder, B. P., Paige, D., Soki, F. N., Koh, A. J., Thiele, S., … McCauley, L. K. (2019). Trabectedin Reduces Skeletal Prostate Cancer Tumor Size in Association with Effects on M2 Macrophages and Efferocytosis. Neoplasia (United States), 21(2), 172–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2018.11.003