Counterfeiting has been growing at an alarming rate worldwide. The increasing number of counterfeit products has penetrated into various industries, especially the luxury goods industry. Numerous anti-counterfeit and product authentication technologies are available to combat this problem. At present, the verification principle in product authentication mainly relies on optical detection and security feature identification which require human experts or machines to determine the product's genuineness. As a result, the current approach to product authentication presents formidable challenges to customers in determining the product's authenticity. Attempted to address the challenges, this paper proposes a Watermark-RFID based Self-validation System (WARDS) that provides a self-validation and two-factor authentication approach through integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and watermark technology by means of a mobile platform. The system architecture and a framework for development of WARDS are presented. Critical issues at different stages of constructing WARDS in organizations are identified. Furthermore, the capability, benefits and advantages of using the proposed system in combating counterfeiting problems are illustrated in the findings of a trial implementation presented in this paper. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Ting, S. L., & Tsang, A. H. C. (2013). A two-factor authentication system using Radio Frequency Identification and watermarking technology. Computers in Industry, 64(3), 268–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2012.11.002