The survival of patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is very poor. We studied the outcomes of 302 patients who underwent secondary allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from an unrelated donor (URD) using either myeloablative (n= 242) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC; n= 60) regimens reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research. After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 2 to 160 months), the probability of treatment-related mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-50%) at 1-year. The 5-year incidence of relapse was 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), and that of overall survival was 22% (95% CI, 18%-27%). Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly better overal survival with RIC regimens (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35-0.75; P <.001), with Karnofsky Performance Status score ≥90% (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82: P= .001) and in cytomegalovirus-negative recipients (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94; P= .022). A longer interval (>18 months) from auto-HCT to URD allo-HCT was associated with significantly lower riak of relapse (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.38; P <.001) and improved leukemia-free survival (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.84; P= .006). URD allo-HCT after auto-HCT relapse resulted in 20% long-term leukemia-free survival, with the best results seen in patients with a longer interval to secondary URD transplantation, with a Karnofsky Performance Status score ≥90%, in complete remission, and using an RIC regimen. Further efforts to reduce treatment-related mortaility and relapse are still needed. © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Foran, J. M., Pavletic, S. Z., Logan, B. R., Agovi-Johnson, M. A., Pérez, W. S., Bolwell, B. J., … Weisdorf, D. J. (2013). Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Transplantation after Failure of Autologous Transplantation for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia: A Study from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 19(7), 1102–1108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.04.022