Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and are some of the most rapidly evolving and diverse pathogens encountered by the host immune system. Large complicated viruses, such as poxviruses, have evolved a plethora of proteins to disrupt host immune signalling in their battle against immune surveillance. Recent X-ray crystallographic analysis of these viral immunomodulators has helped form an emerging picture of the molecular details of virus-host interactions. In this review we consider some of these immune evasion strategies as they apply to poxviruses, from a structural perspective, with specific examples from the European SPINE2-Complexes initiative. Structures of poxvirus immunomodulators reveal the capacity of viruses to mimic and compete against the host immune system, using a diverse range of structural folds that are unique or acquired from their hosts with both enhanced and unexpectedly divergent functions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Bahar, M. W., Graham, S. C., Chen, R. A. J., Cooray, S., Smith, G. L., Stuart, D. I., & Grimes, J. M. (2011, August). How vaccinia virus has evolved to subvert the host immune response. Journal of Structural Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2011.03.010