© 2016 Bouchi et al.Background: We aimed to investigate whether visceral adiposity could modify the impact of blood pressure on arterial stiffness and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study examines the interaction of visceral adiposity with increased blood pressure on arterial stiffness and albuminuria. 638 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 64 ± 12 years; 40 % female) were enrolled. Visceral fat area (VFA, cm2) was assessed by a dual-impedance analyzer, whereby patients were divided into those with VFA < 100 (N = 341) and those with VFA ≥ 100 (N = 297). Albuminuria was measured in a single 24-h urine collection (UAE, mg/day) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV, cm/s) was used for the assessment of arterial stiffening. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and VFA with UAE and baPWV. Results: Patients with VFA ≥ 100 were significantly younger, had higher SBP, HbA1c, triglycerides, UAE, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein and lower high-density lipoprotein and shorter duration of diabetes than those with VFA < 100. SBP was significantly and almost equivalently associated with ba-PWV both in VFA < 100 (standardized β 0.224, p = 0.001) and VFA ≥ 100 (standardized β 0.196, p = 0.004) patients in the multivariate regression analysis adjusting for covariates including age, gender, HbA1c, diabetic complications and the use of insulin and anti-hypertensive agents. By contrast, the association of SBP with UAE was stronger in patients with VFA ≥ 100 (standardized β 0.263, p = 0.001) than that in patients with VFA < 100 (standardized β 0.140, p = 0.080) in the multivariate regression model. In the whole cohort, the significant interaction between SBP and VFA on UAE (standardized β 0.172, p = 0.040) but not on ba-PWV (standardized β -0.008, p = 0.916) was observed. Conclusions: The effect of increased blood pressure on arterial stiffness is almost similar in type 2 diabetic patients with both low and high visceral adiposity, while its association with albuminuria is stronger in the latter.
Bouchi, R., Ohara, N., Asakawa, M., Nakano, Y., Takeuchi, T., Murakami, M., … Ogawa, Y. (2016). Is visceral adiposity a modifier for the impact of blood pressure on arterial stiffness and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes? Cardiovascular Diabetology, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-016-0335-3