Do we need to detect isoniazid resistance in addition to rifampicin resistance in diagnostic tests for tuberculosis?

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Abstract

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is resistant to both rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Whereas many TB diagnostics detect RIF-resistance, few detect INH-monoresistance, which is common and may increase risk of acquired MDR-TB. Whether inclusion of INH-resistance in a first-line rapid test for TB would have an important impact on MDR-TB rates remains uncertain. Methods: We developed a transmission model to evaluate three tests in a population similar to that of India: a rapid molecular test for TB, the same test plus RIF-resistance detection ("TB+RIF"), and detection of RIF and INH-resistance ("TB+RIF/INH"). Our primary outcome was the prevalence of INH-resistant and MDR-TB at ten years. Results: Compared to the TB test alone and assuming treatment of all diagnosed MDR cases, the TB+RIF test reduced the prevalence of MDR-TB among all TB cases from 5.5% to 3.8% (30.6% reduction, 95% uncertainty range, UR: 17-54%). Despite using liberal assumptions about the impact of INH-monoresistance on treatment outcomes and MDR-TB acquisition, expansion from TB+RIF to TB+RIF/INH lowered this prevalence only from 3.8% to 3.6% further (4% reduction, 95% UR: 3-7%) and INH-monoresistant TB from 15.8% to 15.1% (4% reduction, 95% UR: (-8)-19%). Conclusion: When added to a rapid test for TB plus RIF-resistance, detection of INH-resistance has minimal impact on transmission of TB, MDR-TB, and INH-monoresistant TB. © 2014 Denkinger et al.

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Denkinger, C. M., Pai, M., & Dowdy, D. W. (2014). Do we need to detect isoniazid resistance in addition to rifampicin resistance in diagnostic tests for tuberculosis? PLoS ONE, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084197

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