Biological Sciences

In this discipline: 5,616 papers · 30,499 groups

Discipline summary

Biology is the study of life. It attempts to understand the structure, function, processes and evolution of living organisms and how they relate to their environment. Modern biology covers a wide variety of fields and is highly interdisciplinary, drawing on advances in areas such as computer science, mathematics, psychology. Because biology is such a broad subject, it is subdivided according the level of organization being addressed. At the lowest level, molecular biology studies the component parts of cells: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Cellular biology studies the cells themselves, how cells communicate intercellularly and intracellularly, their internal structure and organelles and how they relate to one another in multicellular organisms. The related field of microbiology deals generally with single-celled organisms, while virology handles the "edge case" of viruses. At higher levels of organization, the sub-disciplines are usually named according to the specific system being studied, as in nephrology, neurology, mycology, etc. Ecology generally deals with the highest level of organization, studying entire ecosystems.

Popular papers

  1. The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to…
  2. Ten years after the publication of the position paper The hallmarks of cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg Cell 100:5770, 2000), it has become increasingly clear that mutated cells on their way to giving rise to a tumor have also to learn how to thrive in…
  3. How should ecologists and evolutionary biologists analyze nonnormal data that involve random effects? Nonnormal data such as counts or proportions often defy classical statistical procedures. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) provide a more…
  4. We report the design, synthesis, and assembly of the 1.08-mega-base pair Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0 genome starting from digitized genome sequence information and its transplantation into a M. capricolum recipient cell to create new M. mycoides…
  5. Early number sense is a strong predictor of later success in school mathematics. A disproportionate number of children from low-income families come to first grade with weak number competencies, leaving them at risk for a cycle of failure. The…
  6. The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research…

Popular groups

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