The localization of the bovine lingual tonsil is described as a prerequisite for the removal of specified risk material from the tongue meat in order to restrict the risk arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to public health. The major part of this tonsil can be located macroscopically by the openings of its follicular crypts at the root of tongue. This part consists of organized aggregations of lymph nodules. Additional solitary primary lymph nodules and diffuse accumulations of lymphocytes are macroscopically invisible but are bilaterally present in the area extending 2 cm caudal to 3 cm rostral to the last vallate papillae. By sectioning the tongue 3 cm rostral to the last vallate papillae, undermining the lingual mucosa to the level of these papillae and making a transverse cut towards the lingual process of the basihyoid bone, the greater part of the lingual tonsil can efficiently be removed. Finally, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of T and B lymphocytes, suggesting that the bovine lingual tonsil can be considered as a site where an immune response can be induced. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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