A standard-free calibration procedure for total-reflection X-ray fluorescence has been developed which is based on the Fresnel theory for the reflection and refraction of X-rays on surfaces at grazing incidence. The technique requires only a pure metal surface as reference. The formalism is described in more detail for the measurement of contaminants on silicon wafer surfaces for both film-like and particulate distributions. Only natural constants are involved in the calculations. The resulting calibration factor is compared with those obtained from the droplet method normally applied elsewhere. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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