Calibration of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using a nickel bulk sample

  • Knoth J
  • Beaven P
  • Schwenke H
 et al. 
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Abstract

A standard-free calibration procedure for total-reflection X-ray fluorescence has been developed which is based on the Fresnel theory for the reflection and refraction of X-rays on surfaces at grazing incidence. The technique requires only a pure metal surface as reference. The formalism is described in more detail for the measurement of contaminants on silicon wafer surfaces for both film-like and particulate distributions. Only natural constants are involved in the calculations. The resulting calibration factor is compared with those obtained from the droplet method normally applied elsewhere. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Calibration
  • Quantification
  • Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)
  • Wafer contamination

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Authors

  • Joachim Knoth

  • Peter Beaven

  • Heinrich Schwenke

  • Maximilian Dobler

  • Ulrich Reus

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