A standard-free calibration procedure for total-reflection X-ray fluorescence has been developed which is based on the Fresnel theory for the reflection and refraction of X-rays on surfaces at grazing incidence. The technique requires only a pure metal surface as reference. The formalism is described in more detail for the measurement of contaminants on silicon wafer surfaces for both film-like and particulate distributions. Only natural constants are involved in the calculations. The resulting calibration factor is compared with those obtained from the droplet method normally applied elsewhere. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Knoth, J., Beaven, P., Schwenke, H., Dobler, M., & Reus, U. (2001). Calibration of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using a nickel bulk sample. Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy, 56(11), 2275–2281. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0584-8547(01)00281-6