A computational study was performed to quantify the effects of strain rate on replica-model (scaled) experiments of penetration and perforation. The impact of a tungsten-alloy, long-rod projectile into an armor steel target at 1.5 km s-1was investigated. It was found that over a scale factor of 10, strain-rate effects change the depth of penetration, for semi-infinite targets, and the residual velocity and length of the projectile, for finite-thickness targets, by an order of 5%. Although not modeled explicitly in the present study, the time-dependence of damage was examined. Damage accumulation is a strong function of absolute time, not scaled time. At homologous times, a smaller scale will have less accumulated damage than a larger scale; therefore, the smaller scale will appear stronger, particularly in situations where the details of damage evolution are important. © 1993.
Anderson, C. E., Mullin, S. A., & Kuhlman, C. J. (1993). Computer simulation of strain-rate effects in replica scale model penetration experiments. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 13(1), 35–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-743X(93)90107-I