Ecotopes are the structural elements of landscapes for which matter and energy balances can be derived from measurements. Vertical flux densities are the typical entities governing their structure and function. Potential flux densities in ecotopes are discussed in detail using a complex circuit diagram that differentiates between transport and reaction columnar resistors. From this the locations and methods of measurement are deduced. Determination of flux densities between troposphere and phytosphere/pedosphere is restricted to the constant flux layer, by theory and practice.
Dämmgen, U., Grünhage, L., & Jäger, H. J. (1997). Description, assessment and meaning of vertical fluxes of matter within ecotopes: A systematic consideration. Environmental Pollution, 96(2), 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(96)00135-2