A guide for performing germ cell mutagenesis assays using Drosophila melanogaster

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Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is primarily an inflammatory cytokine. Biologically, IL-1 is more closely related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) than any other cytokine or interleukin, although the structure and receptors for IL-1 and TNF are clearly distinct. IL-1 is active in the low pM and fM range and IL-1 receptors (IL-1R) are expressed in most cells, although less than 100 receptors per cell is not an uncommon finding. Based on short-term blockade of IL-1 receptors in humans and animals and IL-1 beta knock-out mice, there is no evidence that IL-1 beta plays a role in development, or normal homeostasis such as metabolism, hematopoiesis, renal and hepatic function or regulation of blood pressure. On the other hand, IL-1 alpha is found constitutively produced by various epithelial cells, keratinocytes of the skin and in the brain. In these locations, IL-1 may contribute to cell growth and repair functions. During inflammation, injury, immunological challenge or infection, IL-1 is produced and because of its multiple biological properties, IL-1 must contribute to disease. Most studies on IL-1 are derived from experiments in which humans or animals are injected with IL-1 or IL-1 is added to cells in vitro. The biological properties of IL-1 suggest that its effects often mimic host responses to infection, inflammation, injury or immunologic challenge. Using specific IL-1 blockade, it is clear IL-1 is playing a critical role in some disease processes. This review will focus on IL-1 as a cytokine of primary and strategic importance to the initiation and progression of inflammatory and infectious diseases.




Mason, J. M., Aaron, C. S., Lee, W. R., Dennis Smith, P., Thakar, A., Valencia, R., … Zimmering, S. (1987). A guide for performing germ cell mutagenesis assays using Drosophila melanogaster. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1218(87)90015-2

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