Local non-equilibrium distribution of charge carriers in a phase- coherent conductor

  • Gramespacher T
  • Büttiker M
  • 5


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 0


    Citations of this article.


We use the scattering matrix approach to derive generalized Bardeen-like formulae for the conductances between the contacts of a phase-coherent multiprobe conductor and a tunneling tip which probes its surface. These conductances are proportional to local partial densities of states, called injectivities and emissivities. The current and the current fluctuations measured at the tip are related to an effective local non-equilibrium distribution function. This distribution function contains the quantum- mechanical phase-coherence of the charge carriers in the conductor and is given as products of injectivities and the Fermi distribution functions in the electron reservoirs. The results are illustrated for measurements on ballistic conductors with barriers and for diffusive conductors.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Density of states
  • Distribution functions
  • Mesoscopic systems
  • Tunneling

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Thomas Gramespacher

  • Markus Büttiker

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free