The dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2) are NADPH-dependant hydrogen peroxide-producing enzymes that are reported to function in a physiological capacity and as a component of the mucosal immune response. We have previously reported increased expression of the DUOX2 gene in the gut mucosa of sheep in response to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) challenge. In this paper, we report the cloning of the full-length ovine DUOX2 transcript, using a PCR based strategy. The ovine DUOX2 transcript includes an ORF of 4644 bases, and encodes a protein with 97% identity to the bovine sequence. We also cloned a fragment of DUOX1 (encompassing nucleotides 2692-2829), and the proximal promoter sequence of DUOX2. Through analysis of sequence data we have confirmed that DUOX1 and DUOX2 are co-located in a head to tail arrangement conserved across many species. Alignment of the sequences to the ovine genome predicts a location of this gene cluster on ovine chromosome 7. We quantified the expression of ovine DUOX1 and DUOX2 transcripts in 24 different sheep tissues, and discovered tissue specific expression signatures. DUOX2 was found to be most highly expressed in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, while expression of DUOX1 predominated in the bladder. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analysis identified the existence of multiple 5' UTR variants in DUOX2, ranging in size from 32 to 242 nucleotides, with 3 distinct transcribed regions. Real time PCR quantification of the DUOX2 UTR variants revealed that these were differentially expressed between tissues, and at various stages of the response to GIN parasite infection. The collective evidence suggested a complex regulation of DUOX2, prompting a bioinformatic analysis of the proximal promoter regions of ovine DUOX2 to identify potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) that may explain the differences in the observed expression of the transcript variants of DUOX2. Possible transcription factor families that may regulate this process were identified as Kruppel-like factors (KLF), ETS-factors, erythroid growth receptor factors (EGRF) and myogenic differentiation factors (MYOD). © 2012.
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