The steady-state characteristics of a two-phase natural circulation loop were investigated based on the homogenous model. Transcendental equations of non-dimensional loop mass flow rate under various conditions were also derived. The static bifurcation diagram of a two-phase natural circulation described with non-dimensional variables Npch-m+ was obtained. In addition, various steady-state characteristics of a natural circulation loop were analyzed and discussed. These characteristics include the existence of multiple solutions under certain conditions, and the maximum mass flow rate. The authors also examined the effects of important parameters such as sub-cooling number, riser-to-heated-region length ratio, and riser-to-heated-region diameter ratio.
Tong, L. L., Li, T. S., & Li, X. Y. (2006). Non-dimensional analysis of static bifurcation in a natural circulation loop. Nuclear Science and Techniques/Hewuli, 17(1), 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-8042(06)60013-4