The nuclear stopping and the radial flow are investigated with an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model for Ni + Ni and Pb + Pb from 0.4 to and 1.2 GeV/u. The expansion velocity as well as the degree of nuclear stopping are higher in the heavier system at all energies. The ratio between the flow energy and the total available energy in center of mass of the colliding systems exhibits a positive correlation to the degree of nuclear stopping. The maximum density (ρmax) achieved in the compression is comparable to the hydrodynamics prediction only if the non-zero collision time effect is taken into account in the later. Due to the partial transparency, the growing of the maximum density achieved in the central region of the fireball with the increase of beam energy becomes gradually flat in the 1 GeV/u energy regime. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fu, F., Xiao, Z. G., Zhang, Y. P., Feng, Z. Q., Jin, G. M., Xu, H. S., … Zhang, M. (2008). Nuclear stopping and compression in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, 666(4), 359–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.063