In this paper details of rotary tillage regarding the movement of tilled soil are presented. A noticeable reduction of tillage power requirement was achieved during rotary tillage. The soil movement depended upon the direction of rotation and the ratio of tilling depth (H) to blade radius (R). With the differences in the soil movement, four kinds of rotary tilling patterns were determined. Increase in operating power generally resulted when a large amount of tilled soil was re-tilled in the zone of blade rotation. Improvement of backward throwing of the soil was required for power reduction, especially in deep tillage. A backward throwing model of soil by the blade was developed on the basis of trochoidal motion of the blade and sliding motion of the soil over a scoop-surface on the horizontal portion of the blade. The throwing model estimated the conditions for avoiding re-tillage, such as direction of rotation and shape of scoop-surface. The throwing model was applied to the design of the shape of the scoop-surface which enabled maximum backward throwing of the soil sufficient to avoid re-tilling. At tilling depths greater than 300 mm, reverse rotation with the new shaped blades brought about a tillage power reduction by about a half compared to forward or reverse rotation with conventional blades. © 1993.
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