This study employed a hard sphere dynamic model and a bubble raft model because they have provided qualitative insight into the structure of a variety of defects in two-dimensional crystalline and amorphous systems. The computed results form part of a wider investigation of vacancies and interstitials in various grain boundaries in which the binding energies are analyzed and related to the defect structure and form of the interatomic potential.
Bristowe, P. D., Brokman, A., Spaepen, F., & Balluffi, R. W. (1980). SIMULATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF VACANCIES IN HIGH ANGLE GRAIN BOUNDARIES. Scripta Metallurgica, 14(8), 943–950. https://doi.org/10.1016/0036-9748(80)90326-9