A mixing length type model is proposed and numerical results are reported for the Fanning friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient-the Nusselt number-for hydrodynamically and thermally stabilized single phase incompressible turbulent forced convection flow in a round tube with internally sand-roughened walls for moderate Prandtl numbers. Both constant wall heat flux and wall temperature boundary conditions are simulated. A comparison between present results and other experimental and numerical data available indicates better agreement compared to calculations published earlier. © 1989.
Vulchanov, N. L., & Zimparov, V. D. (1989). Stabilized turbulent fluid friction and heat transfer in circular tubes with internal sand type roughness at moderate Prandtl numbers. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 32(1), 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(89)90088-4