Significant achievements have been made during the nineteenth century to improve animal health and welfare through vaccination. Vaccination standards and practices will change significantly in the next century. Vaccination programs need to be tailored to each livestock, operation or individual animal in accordance with manufacturers' instructions, government regulations, scientific standards, professional organization guidelines, and veterinarian recommendations. Vaccination should always be considered in a population context. A better use of vaccine will require a different approach and a significant investment in research. Finally, all the partners involved in animal health should consider a close collaboration to meet future animal and public health challenges. © 1999 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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