By introducing a four-layer step-index waveguide modeling, the characteristics of long-period fiber grating (LPFG) with an nm-thick film overlay, which has higher refractive index than that of fiber cladding are investigated in detail. The influence of both the overlay thickness and refractive index on the tuning ability of LPFG is analyzed. The numerical results demonstrate that spectral response of LPFG is divided into three distinct regions as the overlay deposition increases and the shift of resonant wavelength is drastic in some special thickness range. In conjunction with higher-order cladding mode coupling and fiber cladding etching, the sensitivity of LPFG to the overlay refractive index is enhanced significantly and over 120 nm resonant wavelength tunable range is achieved. © 2006 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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