Glycerol fermentation by Enterobacter agglomerans revealed that both growth and 1,3-propanediol production ceased after consumption of about 430 mM glycerol, irrespective of the initial glycerol content. This phenomenon was assigned to the production of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which was identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and which showed a bacteriostatic effect. The accumulation during glycerol fermentation was also observed with two other enterobacterial species, i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii.
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