The addition of epidural morphine to ropivacaine improves epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery

  • Niiyama Y
  • Kawamata T
  • Shimizu H
 et al. 
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The combination of epidural 0.2% ropivacaine and 0.003% morphine has more effective analgesic effects than either of the drugs alone for postoperative pain relief after lower abdominal surgery.

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  • Yukitoshi Niiyama

  • Tomoyuki Kawamata

  • Hitoshi Shimizu

  • Keiichi Omote

  • Akiyoshi Namiki

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