Canine leishmaniasis is a fatal zoonotic visceralizing disease usually associated with tropical areas. The etiologic agent is an obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum. In 1999, an outbreak of a canine leishmaniasis was reported in a Foxhound kennel in New York, and since that report, several other outbreaks have occurred across the United States in additional Foxhound kennels. Because of the high mortality and transmissibility associated with these outbreaks, it is essential that clinicians be aware of this disease to permit its rapid recognition and institution of control measures. Cases with a travel history may suggest imported disease; these are mainly observed from Southern Europe (eg, south of France, Spain, and Italy). Breeds from these and other endemic areas may be at higher risk of infection with Leishmania because of vertical transmission. The purpose of this report is to discuss the clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, control, and treatment of canine leishmaniasis with focus on the aspects of this disease within North America. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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