Eukaryotic chromatin is regulated by chromatin factors such as histone modification enzymes, chromatin remodeling complexes and histone chaperones in a variety of DNA-dependent reactions. Among these reactions, transcription in the chromatin context is well studied. On the other hand, how other DNA-dependent reactions, including postreplicative homologous recombination, are regulated in the chromatin context remains elusive. Here, histone H3 Lys56 acetylation, mediated by the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 and the histone chaperone Cia1/Asf1, is shown to be required for postreplicative sister chromatid recombination. This recombination did not occur in the cia1/asf1-V94R mutant, which lacks histone binding and histone chaperone activities and which cannot promote the histone acetyltransferase activity of Rtt109. A defect in another histone chaperone, CAF-1, led to an increase in acetylated H3-K56 (H3-K56-Ac)-dependent postreplicative recombination. Some DNA lesions recognized by the putative ubiquitin ligase complex Rtt101-Mms1-Mms22, which is reported to act downstream of the H3-K56-Ac signaling pathway, seem to be increased in CAF-1 defective cells. Taken together, these data provide the framework for a postreplicative recombination mechanism controlled by histone modifiers and histone chaperones in multiple ways.
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