The development of chronic lung disease is common in HIV-infected children. The spectrum of chronic HIV-associated lung disease includes lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), chronic infections, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), bronchiectasis, malignancies, and interstitial pneumonitis. Chronic lung disease may result from recurrent or persistent pneumonia due to bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal or mixed infections. In high tuberculosis (TB) prevalence areas, M. tuberculosis is an important cause of chronic respiratory illness. With increasing availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for children in developing countries, a rise in the incidence of IRIS due to mycobacterial or other infections is being reported. Diagnosis of chronic lung disease is based on chronic symptoms and persistent chest X-ray changes but definitive diagnosis can be difficult as clinical and radiological findings may be non-specific. Distinguishing LIP from miliary TB remains a difficult challenge in HIV-infected children living in high TB prevalence areas. Treatment includes therapy for specific infections, pulmonary clearance techniques, corticosteroids for children with LIP who are hypoxic or who have airway compression from tuberculous nodes and HAART. Children who are taking TB therapy and HAART need adjustments in their drug regimes to minimize drug interactions and ensure efficacy. Preventative strategies include immunization, chemoprophylaxis, and micronutrient supplementation. Early use of HAART may prevent the development of chronic lung disease. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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