The spread of antimalarial drug resistance has major consequences for malaria control in tropical Africa. Here, the impact of chloroquine resistance on the burden of malaria is analyzed and its implications for the Roll Back Malaria initiative are examined. Malaria mortality has increased at least twofold during the past two decades. Combination therapy should be available for home treatment of young children. The potential toxicity of most antimalarials will require special surveillance programs. The main contribution to malaria control using methods to reduce the entomological inoculation rate is expected in areas with low or unstable transmission. Classic vector-control methods could potentially eliminate malaria in most urban areas and such programs deserve high priority.
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