Comparing a 1D hydraulic model with a 2D hydraulic model

  • Alho P
  • Aaltonen J
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Glacial outburst floods (jo ̈kulhlaups) destroy a significant amount of infrastructure in proglacial areas. Nevertheless, few studies have simulated extreme jo ̈kulhlaup inundation using hydraulic modelling. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of one-dimensional jo ̈kulhlaup simulation (HEC-RAS modelling software) and compare simulation results with those from a two-dimensional finite element model (TELEMAC-2D modelling software) to determine the potential and limitations of one-dimensional modelling for jo ̈kulhlaup simulations. In both models, a pre-defined hydrograph was used as an upstream boundary condition for the jo ̈kulhlaup, which was simulated on the Mo ̈ðrudalur floodplain, northeast Iceland. An unsteady flow simulation of the rising stage of the flood (5 h 15 min) was undertaken with both models to produce maps of flood inundation and flow depth. The study shows that simulations had a 200 m horizontal difference in inundated area at the peak discharge stage. Additional differences were also detected in the rising stage of the hydrograph. The most significant differences between the models was found at the time when the front of the jo ̈kulhlaup inundated a new area through a sinuous gorge, or when inundation took place through a complex flow route (maximum difference 3⁄41800 m). This study demonstrates that one-dimensional modelling of jo ̈kulhlaup propagation provides results broadly comparable to data derived from more complex simulations

Author-supplied keywords

  • glacial outburst flood
  • hydraulic modelling
  • j

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  • Petteri Alho

  • Juha Aaltonen

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