Lactate oxidase forms tight complexes with a variety of mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Most of these undergo facile photoreactions involving decarboxylation of the carboxylic acid and formation of covalent adducts at position N(5) of the flavin, characterized by absorption maxima from 325 to 365 nm and fluorescence emission in the range 440 to 490 nm. The properties of the adducts are strongly dependent on the nature of the substituent. Enzyme-bound N(!+acyl adducts and N(5)- CH2-R derivatives are stable in the dark. Glycollyl- and cu-lactyl adducts, however, decay to oxidized enzyme with half-lives in the order of minutes. Upon denaturation of the enzyme, the N(5)-alkyl adducts decay rapidly or are oxidized by oxygen. Reduced lactate oxidase is also photoalkylated in the presence of halogenated carboxylic acids. Bromoacetate yields an N(5)-carboxymethyl adduct; with P-bromopropionate, a C(4a)+propionyl derivate is formed. The N(5) adduct is identical with that from the photochemical reaction of oxidized enzyme and malonic acid. When the native coenzyme FMN is substituted by 2-S-FMN, qualitatively the same photoproducts are formed. The adducts obtained with the 2-S-FMN enzyme show the expected bathochromic shifts in absorption spectra. The results indicate that the photoreactivity of the enzyme is restricted to the positions C(4a) and N(5) of the flavin.
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