Between 1997 and 2000 a survey of the Arabian subspecies of leopard Panthera pardus nimr was conducted in the little known Jabal Samhan Nature Reserve in southern Oman. Using camera-traps 251 photographic records were obtained of 17 individual leopards; nine females, five males, two adults of unknown sex and one cub. Leopards were usually solitary and trail use and movements suggested large ranges characterized by spatial sharing but little temporal overlap. More active by day than night in undisturbed areas, overall the leopards exhibited two peaks in activity, morning and evening. The survey also provided records of leopard prey species and first records of nine Red List mammal species previously unrecorded in Jabal Samhan. Although people are mostly absent from the Reserve there is some conflict between leopards and shepherds who live outside the Reserve. The numbers and activities of frankincense harvesters in the Reserve need to be managed to safeguard the leopard and its habitat. The main challenge for the future is to find ways whereby local communities can benefit from the presence of the Reserve and from the leopards that the Reserve seeks to safeguard.
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