This study examined the reliability and explanatory ability of a modified version of Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory as it applied to Canadian (n=170) and Mainland Chinese (n=229) university students' leisure motivations and determined whether these leisure motivations differed between the two cultural groups. An on-site questionnaire composed of seven motivational scales was developed. Alpha coefficients, confirmatory factor analyses, and scale intercorrelation comparisons supported self-determination theory's cross-cultural applicability. Profile analyses indicated as hypothesized that: (a) Canadian students were significantly more identified, introjected reward, and introjected punishment motivated than were Chinese students; and (b) Chinese and Canadian students were not significantly different in their intrinsic, integrated, external reward, and external punishment motivations. Findings are discussed in regard to leisure's universality.
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