Cross-cultural confirmatory factor analysis of the CES-D in Spanish and Mexican dementia caregivers.

  • Losada A
  • de los Angeles Villareal M
  • Nuevo R
 et al. 
  • 27

    Readers

    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 8

    Citations

    Citations of this article.

Abstract

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is the most frequently used scale for measuring depressive symptomatology in caregiving research. The aim of this study is to test its construct structure and measurement equivalence between caregivers from two Spanish-speaking countries. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 595 female dementia caregivers from Madrid, Spain, and from Coahuila, Mexico. The structure of the CES-D was analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA, respectively). Measurement invariance across samples was analyzed comparing a baseline model with a more restrictive model. Significant differences between means were found for 7 items. The results of the EFA clearly supported a four-factor solution. The CFA for the whole sample with the four factors revealed high and statistically significant loading coefficients for all items (except item number 4). When equality constraints were imposed to test for the invariance between countries, the change in chi-square was significant, indicating that complete invariance could not be assumed. Significant between-countries differences were found for three of the four latent factor mean scores. Although the results provide general support for the original four-factor structure, caution should be exercised on reporting comparisons of depression scores between Spanish-speaking countries.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Caregivers
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Dementia
  • Depression
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Mexico
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics
  • Spain
  • diagnosis
  • instrumentation
  • nursing
  • psychology

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Authors

  • Andres Losada

  • M de los Angeles Villareal

  • Roberto Nuevo

  • Maria Marquez-Gonzalez

  • Bertha C Salazar

  • Rosa Romero-Moreno

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free