Cryptorchidism is the most common genital disorder in boys. Early-born boys are affected in up to one third of the cases, while about 2-5% of full-term newborns suffer from at least one undescended testicle. As a result of short-term endogenous testosterone secretion after birth the prevalence decreases to 1-2% after 3 months. According to most studies, watchful waiting after 6 months is not justified because after this time spontaneous testicular descent only very rarely occurs. Even though the effects of testicular development and fertility in undescended testis have been extensively examined, the only fact that remains certain is that approximately 90% of untreated men with bilateral cryptorchidism develop azoospermia. The remaining scenarios of cryptorchidism (unilateral, ectopic, inguinal, treated or not treated) exhibit unpredictable fertility and likelihood of fatherhood.
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