The term “immobilized enzymes” refers to “enzymes physically confined or localized in a certain defined region of space with retention of their catalytic activities, and which can be used repeatedly and continuously”. Besides the application in industrial processes, the immobilization techniques are the basis for making a number of biotechnological products with applications in diagnostics, antibiotic production, bioremediation and biosensors. The major components of an immobilized enzyme system are the enzyme, the matrix, and the mode of attachment. The enzymes can be attached to the support by interactions ranging from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages to stable covalent bonds. As a consequence of enzyme immobilization, some properties such as catalytic activity or thermal stability become altered. However, immobilized enzymes possess the capability of reuse, low cost of production and have many industrial and medical applications. The concept of stabilization has been an important driving force for immobilizing enzymes. True stabilization at the molecular level has been demonstrated (e.g., proteins immobilized through multipoint covalent binding).
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