Pasture-based dairying in New Zealand and Australia has come under increasing animal welfare scrutiny as a result of changing public expectations for farm animal management. Concurrently, efficiency-driven changes in dairy management practices and a broadening of the feedbase beyond traditionally grazed pasture have resulted in increased intensification and stocking density within the dairy industries. This intensification has included a higher proportion of grain concentrates in the diet (particularly in Australia), and the greater management of cows off pasture and even in housing (particularly in New Zealand). Research to assess the animal welfare implications of these changes and to recommend good practice management has concentrated on issues of cow environments and cow feeding, including body condition. Research has shown that cows may be managed for a few hours per day on concrete surfaces without compromising their lying behaviour and other indicators of welfare, but that longer periods off pasture require the provision of a well drained and comfortable lying surface. Other research has defined the extremes of hot and cold/wet conditions beyond which cows benefit from provision of adequate shade and shelter. Research on cow body condition has indicated that welfare responses are aligned with measures of health and productivity in supporting the need to maintain a minimum body condition before calving and during the subsequent weight loss period of early lactation. Continued research, extension and industry adoption will enable dairy producers to address community expectations as they continue to change their farming practices. © CSIRO 2013.
Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research
Choose a citation style from the tabs below