The directional orientation of pre- and post-reproductive migration was studied in the Brazilian red-bellied toad Melanophryniscus cambaraensis , a species that forms explosive-breeding aggregations at irregular intervals throughout the entire year. Migrating toads were captured by enclosing the breeding site in dual drift fences with inward- and outward-facing funnel traps. Data were collected over 5 mo and totalled 333 captures. The observed directional orientation was significantly different from expected under a uniform distribution for both pre- and post-reproductive migration, regardless of gender. Males and females did not differ significantly from each other in the orientation of entry or exit, and the directional orientation of pre-reproductive migration was not significantly different from post-reproductive migration. It is suggested that the observed directional bias may be due to a dirt road next to the breeding site that could restrict juvenile dispersal to the adjacent forest.
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