Distribution of lindane in water, sediment, and fish from the Warri River of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

  • Ezemonye L
  • Ikpesu T
  • Tongo I
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Abstract

This paper is the first attempt to quantify the levels and the distribution pattern of lindane in the surface water, sediment and fish (Chrysichthys furcatus and Tilapia zilli). The samples were collected from three stations (Ovwian, Ekakpamre, and Ovu) of the Warri River in the western Niger Delta of Nigeria in 2006: during the dry (January-April) and wet seasons (May-August). The analysis included a total of 96 samples made up of 24 samples each for water, sediment, and fish. The pesticide levels were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography to elucidate its distribution in various environmental compartments. Residue levels in the matrices ranged from below the detection limit (BDL) to 1.37microg L(-1) in water, BDL to 12.66 microg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, BDL to 16.67 microg g(-1)dw in Chrysichthys furcatus, and BDL to 0.15 microg g(-1)dw in Tilapia zilli. The observed values were above the ecological benchmarks (0.01 microg L(-1)) recommended by the Nigerian Environmental Protection Agency and European Union. They were also relatively higher than in previous studies on the Nigerian environment, which calls for regular monitoring of the Niger Delta water bodies.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Benchmarks
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Chrysichthys furcatus
  • Surface water
  • Tilapia zilli

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