Dynamic mutations as digital genetic modulators of brain development, function and dysfunction

  • Nithianantharajah J
  • Hannan A
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Abstract

A substantial portion of the human genome has been found to consist of simple sequence repeats, including microsatellites and minisatellites. Microsatellites, tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotides, form the template for dynamic mutations, which involve heritable changes in the lengths of repeat sequences. In recent years, a large number of human disorders have been found to be caused by dynamic mutations, the most common of which are trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases. Dynamic mutations are common to numerous nervous system disorders, including Huntington's disease, various spinocerebellar ataxias, fragile X syndrome, fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome, Friedreich ataxia and other neurodegenerative disorders. The involvement of dynamic mutations in brain disorders will be reviewed, with a focus on the large group caused by CAG/glutamine repeat expansions. We will also outline a proposed role of tandem repeat polymorphisms (TRPs), with unique 'digital' genetic distributions, in modulating brain development and normal function, so as to generate additional mutational diversity upon which natural selection may act.

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