The influence of plating mode, chloride and thiourea (TU) on morphology of copper deposits has been studied. All experiments were conducted on disc electrodes rotating at 500 rpm and an average current density of 4 A dm-2to produce 10 μm thick deposits. In additive-free solutions, the use of pulsed current (PC) improved deposit morphology and brightness over DC plating. In the presence of thiourea (no Cl-), the deposits obtained by DC and PC plating were similar under most plating conditions. The presence of thiourea generally improved deposit quality over that obtained in additive-free solutions, but caused the formation of microscopic nodules and the deposits to appear slightly cloudy, resulting in lower reflectances than that of a polished uncoated copper surface. The addition of Cl-to thiourea-containing solutions strongly influenced deposit morphology at both microscopic and macroscopic scales depending on chloride concentration and pulse conditions. It prevented nodule formation and created microscopically bright and reflective deposits, but caused extreme macroscopic roughness. Nevertheless, PC plating at 50 Hz in solutions containing appropriate amounts of thiourea and Cl-was found to yield macroscopically and microscopically smooth deposits with reflectance similar to that of a polished uncoated copper substrate. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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