Background and objective: In the field of bone implant surfaces, the effects of nanoscale modifications have received significant attention. In the present study, bone cell activity on 2 implant surfaces with similar microtopography but distinct chemistry and nanotopography (sandblasted/acid-etched surface as control group, and calcium phosphate (CaP) low impregnated surface (Ossean) as test group, both from Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL) were evaluated. Study design: The 2 surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) up to ×200,000 magnification. The micrometer level roughness profiles were evaluated by means of computer software. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed with human SaOS-2 osteoblasts and bone mesenchymal stem cells in nonosteogenic culture conditions. Results: The XPS and SEM results showed that the Ossean surface presented low levels of CaP impregnation within the titanium oxide layer and texturization at the nanometer scale (nanoroughness) compared with the control surface. Moreover Ossean surface induced significantly higher cell differentiation levels than the control (P < .01). Conclusion: This study showed that both homogeneous nanoroughness and CaP low impregnation differently affected in vitro bone cell behavior compared with the control moderately rough surface with less texturing in the nanometer scale. However, the relative importance of nanotopography and surface chemistry in cell reactions is yet to be determined. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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