Many mammal species can cause crop damage simultaneously at one location; therefore, we designed and tested three fence types that targeted medium and large mammals. Ten mammal species were targeted (Japanese hare, raccoon dog, red fox, Japanese marten, masked palm civet, Eurasian badger, Asiatic black bear, wild boar, sika deer, and Japanese macaque). All three fences were electric and an expanded metal lath carried the current. To prevent invasions through lower gaps, the gap between the expanded metal lath and the ground surface was closed using a corrugated polyvinyl chloride sheet as an insulating material. After the fences were constructed, infrared-triggered cameras were set up both inside and outside the fences. All three fences prevented invasion by the targeted species. Overall, these fences had high practical value for nine of the targeted species; the exception was the Asiatic black bear, which was observed only once.
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