Examined the effects of hand-rearing on the reproductive success of western lowland gorillas. 257 wild-born (WB) gorillas and 440 born at zoos (ZB) or related facilities in North America were studied. Results show no significant differences concerning the number of reproductive ZB and WB females. Mother-reared (MR), ZB females produced more offspring and used more reproductive opportunities than did hand-reared (HR) females, whereas rearing exerted no effects on the reproductive success of ZB males. MR and partially HR females were more likely to become nurturing mothers themselves.
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