The potential of time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) for imaging ultrafast processes and for aberration correction in full-field imaging is discussed. In particular, we focus on stroboscopic imaging ofprecessional magnetic excitations viaXMCD-PEEMexploiting the time structure of synchrotron radiation (magnetic field pulse pump–X-ray probe). In a special bunch-compression mode at BESSY, a time resolution of about 15 ps has been obtained. Further,we discuss an all-opticalpump–probe technique using femtosecond laser excitation.Ahighly promising alternative to stroboscopic imaging is an approach using time-resolved image detection. As a second application of time-resolved PEEM we discuss potential ways of aberration correction. These approaches go back to the old ideas of Scherzer in the light of state- of-the-art equipment. The excellent time structure of synchrotron radiation or pulsed lasers along with advanced methods of time-resolved image detection and fast electronic pulsers opensways for driving the resolution limit of a PEEM into the range of a few nanometers.
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